MIRO, Joan

(1893-1983), Spain/France
Also well-known as: Miró I Ferrà
  • Name: MIRO, Joan
  • Born: 1893, 20/4, Barcelona, Spain
  • Died: 1983, 25/12, Palma, Majorca, Spain

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Joan Miró i Ferrà (April 20,1893 – December 25,1983) was a world renowned Spanish Catalan painter, sculptor, and ceramist who was born in the sea port city of Barcelona.

Miro was the son of a watchmaking father and a goldsmith mother, he was exposed to the arts from a very young age. There have been some drwaings recovered by Miro dating to 1901, when he was only 8 years old. Miro enrolled at the School of Industrial and Fine Arts in Barcelona until 1910; during his attendance he was taught by Modest Urgell and Josep Pascó.

After overcoming a serious bout of typhoid fever in 1911, Miro decided to devote his life entirely to painting by attending the school of art taught by Francesc Galí. He studied at La Lonja School of Fine Arts in Barcelona, and in 1918 set up his first individual exhibition in the Dalmau Galleries, in the same city. His works before 1920 (the date of his first trip to Paris) reflect the influence of different trends, like the pure and brilliant colors used in Fauvism, shapes taken from cubism, influences from folkloric Catalan art and Roman frescos from the churches.

His trip to Paris introduced him to and developed his trend of surrealist painting. In 1921, he showed his first individual exhibition in Paris, at La Licorne Gallery. In 1928, he exhibited with a group of surrealists in the Pierre Gallery, also in Paris, although Miró was always to maintain his independent qualities with respect to groups and ideologies.
From 1929-1930, Miró began to take interest in the object as such, in the form of collages. This was a practice which was to lead to his making of surrealist sculptures. His tormented monsters appeared during this decade, which gave way to the consolidation of his plastic vocabulary. He also experimented with many other artistic forms, such as engraving, lithography, water colors, pastels, and painting over copper. What is particularly highlighted from this period, are the two ceramic murals which he made for the UNESCO building in Paris (The Wall of the Moon and the Wall of the Sun, 1957-59).

It was at the end of the 60´s when his final period was marked and which lasted until his death. During this time, he concentrated more and more on monumental and public works. He was characterized by the body language and freshness with which he carried out his canvasses, as well as the special attention he paid to material and the stamp he received from informalism. He concentrated his interest on the symbol, not giving too much importance to the representing theme, but to the way the symbol emerged as the piece of work. Miro had a very eccentric style that is the embodiment of his unique approach to his artwork.

In 1976 the Joan Miró Foundation Centre of Contemporary Art Study was officially opened in the city of Barcelona and in 1979, four years before his death, he was named Doctor Honoris Causa by the University of Barcelona.

Source: joanmiro.com
Miro, Juan (1893-1983), spansk målare, grafiker och skulptör. Verksam i Paris och Barcelona, där han har eget museum. Från en föreställande bildvärld nådde Miro 1924 fram till ett nästan abstrakt måleri, en bildskrift med figurala tecken i rytmiska figurationer. Han arbetar främst med symboler och associationer från det undermedvetna. De spelas ut i djärva konstraster i rena och mättade färger, där det svarta har en stor betydelse. I början av 30-talet kulminerar lekfullheten, samtidigt som färgen får en större och kraft och spänning. Miros grafiska produktion är stor och imponerande, där han har arbetat med såväl litografi som etsning. Han har utfört skulpturer i brons, färg och terrakotta och gjort åtskilliga monumentalmålningar.
Source: http://www.bukowskis.com
Joan Miró

(Barcelona, 1893-Palma de Mallorca, España, 1983) Pintor, escultor, grabador y ceramista español. Estudió comercio y trabajó durante dos años como dependiente en una droguería, hasta que una enfermedad le obligó a retirarse durante un largo periodo en una casa familiar en el pequeño pueblo de Mont-roig del Camp.
De regreso a Barcelona, ingresó en la Academia de Arte dirigida por Francisco Galí, en la que conoció las últimas tendencias artísticas europeas. Hasta 1919, su pintura estuvo dominada por un expresionismo formal con influencias fauvistas y cubistas, centrada en los paisajes, retratos y desnudos.
Ese mismo año viajó a París y conoció a Picasso, Jacob y algunos miembros de la corriente dadaísta, como Tristan Tzara. Alternó nuevas estancias en la capital francesa con veranos en Mont-roig y su pintura empezó a evolucionar hacia una mayor definición de la forma, ahora cincelada por una fuerte luz que elimina los contrastes. En lo temático destacan los primeros atisbos de un lenguaje entre onírico y fantasmagórico, muy personal aunque de raíces populares, que marcaría toda su trayectoria posterior.
Afín a los principios del surrealismo, firmó el Manifiesto (1924) e incorporó a su obra inquietudes propias de dicho movimiento, como el jeroglífico y el signo caligráfico (El carnaval del arlequín). La otra gran influencia de la época vendría de la mano de P. Klee, del que recogería el gusto por la configuración lineal y la recreación de atmósferas etéreas y matizados campos cromáticos.
En 1928, el Museo de Arte Moderno de Nueva York adquirió dos de sus telas, lo que supuso un primer reconocimiento internacional de su obra; un año después, contrajo matrimonio con Pilar Juncosa. Durante estos años el artista se cuestionó el sentido de la pintura, conflicto que se refleja claramente en su obra. Por un lado, inició la serie de Interiores holandeses, abigarradas recreaciones de pinturas del siglo XVII caracterizadas por un retorno parcial a la figuración y una marcada tendencia hacia el preciosismo, que se mantendría en sus coloristas, juguetones y poéticos maniquíes para el Romeo y Julieta de los Ballets Rusos de Diaghilev (1929). Su pintura posterior, en cambio, huye hacia una mayor aridez, esquematismo y abstracción conceptual. Por otro lado, en sus obras escultóricas optó por el uso de material reciclado y de desecho.
La guerra civil española no hizo sino acentuar esta dicotomía entre desgarro violento (Cabeza de mujer) y evasión ensoñadora (Constelaciones), que poco a poco se fue resolviendo en favor de una renovada serenidad, animada por un retorno a la ingenuidad de la simbología mironiana tradicional (el pájaro, las estrellas, la figura femenina) que parece reflejar a su vez el retorno a una visión ingenua, feliz e impetuosa del mundo. No resultaron ajenos a esta especie de renovación espiritual sus ocasionales retiros a la isla de Mallorca, donde en 1956 construyó un estudio, en la localidad de Son Abrines.
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Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1925
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1930, "Lithograph I", Mourlot I
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1938, "Portrait de Miró", Miró and Marcoussis, Dupin 31
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1948
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1948, ”Personnage dans le Soleil” (Mourlot 61)
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1950
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1953, "La Main"
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1954
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1954
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1954, "Le Moulin au Café" (Maeght 1701)
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1957, "Femme au Miroir" (Cramer 36, Mourlot 174)
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1957, "La Naissance du Jour"
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1957, "La Bague d'Aurore (pl. 17)", Dupin 139
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1958, "published by Maeght"
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1958, "Le Prophète"
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1958
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1958, "A Toute Épreuve" (Dupin 235)
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1959
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1959
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1959, "Le Chien Bleu", Maeght 1714
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1963, "Le Faune"
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1963, "Le Faune", Cramer 83, Mourlot 274
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1964, "La Lutte Rituelle", Mourlot 395
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1965, "Le Prophéte la Nuit" (Dupin 397)
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1967, "Tête au Soleil Couchant"
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1967, ”La petite Fille devant la Mère” (Dupin 435)
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1968, "L enfance d Ubu, pl. 13"
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1968, "L enfance d Ubu, pl. 19"
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1968, "L'Oiseaux Mongol", Dupin 513
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1969, "La Femme des Sables" (Dupin 500)
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1969, "L´Iletre - Bleu" (Mourlot 551)
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1969, titled 'MIRÓ. 28/X/69 Femme
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1969, "Dormir sous la Lune" Dupin 495
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1969, "Lithographie pour le County Museum of Art, Los Angeles" (Mourlot 555)
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1970
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1970, ”Les Perséides, pl. 3” (Mourlot 658)
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1970, ”Ma de Proverbis” (Mourlot 676)
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1970, "Archipel Sauvage III" (Dupin 529)
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1971, "Homenatge a Joan Prats"
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1971, ”Ubu aux Baléares” (Mourlot 773)
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1971, "Le Lezard aux Plumes d'Or: one plate" (Mourlot 797)
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1972, "Sobreteixims I Escultures"
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1972, "Homenatge à Joan Prats" (Mourlot 852)
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1973, "Jardin au Claire de Lune" (Cramer 168, Mourlot 896)
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1974, "Les pénalités de l enfer"
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1974, "L'Issue Dérobée", Dupin 709
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1975, "Le Rat de Sables"
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1975, "from Maravillas con Variationes Acrósticas en el Jardín de Miró", Cramer 211, Mourlot 1061
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1975, "Quatre Colors Aparien el Món: Plate 2" (Dupin 823)
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1976, "Dans la Lueur Oblique"
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1976, ”La Ruisselante Lunaire” (Mourlot 1101)
Signature by: MIRO, Joan 1979, "Miranda"
Signature by: MIRO, Joan "Le Petit Éscargot"